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Thanks to advances in veterinary medicine, pets are living longer than ever before. However with this increased lifespan comes an increase in the types of ailments that can afflict senior pets. As pets reach the golden years, there are a variety of conditions and diseases that they can face, including weight and mobility changes; osteoarthritis; kidney, heart, and liver disease; tumors and cancers; hormone disorders such as diabetes and thyroid imbalance; and many others. Just as the health care needs of humans change as we age, the same applies to pets. It’s critical for pet owners to work closely with their veterinarian to devise a health plan that is best for their senior pet.
To assist veterinary hospitals in offering optimal care for senior pets, AAHA has issued a set of Senior Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. These guidelines provide a framework for veterinarians to provide optimal care for all senior pets. Major highlights of these guidelines are covered in this article.
So when is a pet considered a senior? Generally, smaller breeds of dogs live longer than larger breeds, and cats live longer than dogs. Beyond that, the life span will vary with each individual, and your veterinarian will be able to help you determine what stage of life your furry friend is in. Keep in mind that some small dog breeds may be considered senior at 10-13 years, while giant breeds are classified as seniors at ages as young as five. Your veterinarian is your best source for more information to determine when your pet reaches the golden years.
Scheduling regular veterinary examinations is one of the most important steps pet owners can take to keep their pets in tip-top shape. When dogs and cats enter the senior years, these health examinations are more important than ever. Senior care, which starts with the regular veterinary exam, is needed to catch and delay the onset or progress of disease and for the early detection of problems such as organ failure and osteoarthritis. AAHA recommends that healthy senior dogs and cats visit the veterinarian every six months for a complete exam and laboratory testing. Keep in mind that every year for a dog or cat is equivalent to 5–7 human years. In order stay current with your senior pet’s health care, twice-a-year exams are a must. During the senior health exam, your veterinarian will ask you a series of questions regarding any changes in your pet’s activity and behavior.
The veterinarian will also conduct a complete examination of all of your pet’s body systems. Client education and laboratory testing are also key components of the senior exam.
Veterinarians depend on laboratory results to help them understand the status of your pet’s health. When your pet is healthy, laboratory tests provide a means to determine your pet’s “baseline” values. When your pet is sick, the veterinarian can more easily determine whether or not your pet’s lab values are abnormal by comparing the baseline values to the current values. Subtle changes in these laboratory test results, even in the outwardly healthy animal, may signal the presence of an underlying disease. AAHA recommends that dogs and cats at middle age undergo laboratory tests at least annually. During the senior years, laboratory tests are recommended every six months for healthy dogs and cats. At a minimum, the following tests are recommended:
For cats, an additional routine blood test is recommended in order to check for hyperthyroidism, a common ailment in senior cats. Additionally, depending on your individual pet’s condition and other factors, other tests and assessments might be recommended. These include heartworm tests; feline leukemia/feline immunodeficiency virus test in cats; blood pressure evaluation; urine protein evaluation; cultures; imaging such as x-rays, ultrasound, and echocardiography; electrocardiography, and special ophthalmic evaluations, among others. Additional tests become especially important in evaluating senior pets that show signs of sickness or are being prepared for anesthesia and surgery.
Sensory Changes With the senior years comes a general “slowing down” in pets. As their major senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell) dull, you may find that your pet has a slower response to general external stimuli. This loss of sensory perception often is a slow, progressive process, and it may even escape your notice. The best remedy for gradual sensory reduction is to keep your pet active—playing and training are excellent ways to keep their senses sharp. Pets may also be affected mentally as they age. Just as aging humans begin to forget things and are more susceptible to mental conditions, your aging animals may also begin to confront age-related cognitive and behavior changes. Most of these changes are rather subtle and can be addressed in a proactive manner. Regular senior health exams can help catch and treat these problems before they control your pet’s life.
The physical changes your pets experience are generally easier to spot than the sensory changes. As the body wears out, its ability to respond to infection is reduced, and the healing process takes longer. Therefore, it is crucial to consult a veterinarian if you notice a significant change in behavior or the physical condition of your pet. Many of the signs indicating that animals are approaching senior citizenship are the same for both cats and dogs, but they can indicate a variety of different problems (see Signs of a Problem, below). A very common and frustrating problem for aging pets is inappropriate elimination. The kidneys are one of the most common organ systems to wear out on a cat or dog, and as hormone imbalance affects the function of the kidneys, your once well-behaved pet may have trouble controlling his bathroom habits. If you are away all day, he may simply not be able to hold it any longer, or urine may dribble out while he sleeps at night. In addition, excessive urination or incontinence may be indicative of diabetes or kidney failure, both of which are treatable if caught early enough.
Many older pets benefit from specially formulated food that is designed with older bodies in mind. Obesity in pets is often the result of reduced exercise and overfeeding and is a risk factor for problems such as heart disease. Because older pets often have different nutritional requirements, these special foods can help keep your pet’s weight under control and reduce consumption of nutrients that are risk factors for the development of diseases, as well as organ- or age-related changes.
Exercise is yet another aspect of preventive geriatric care for your pets. You should definitely keep them going as they get older—if they are cooped up or kept lying down, their bodies will deteriorate much more quickly. You may want to ease up a bit on the exercise with an arthritic or debilitated cat or dog. Otherwise, you should keep them as active—mentally and physically—as possible in order to keep them sharp. Surgery for the Older Pet In the event your veterinarian is considering surgery or any other procedure in which anesthesia is needed, special considerations are taken to help ensure the safety of your senior pet. AAHA recommends all senior dogs and cats undergo the laboratory testing mentioned above, ideally within two weeks of any anesthetized procedure. A blood pressure evaluation and additional tests might also be recommended, depending on your individual pet. These screening tools can provide critical information to the health care team to help determine the proper anesthesia and drug protocol for your pet, as well as make you aware of any special risk factors that might be encountered.
Pets experience pain just like humans do, and AAHA recommends veterinarians take steps to identify, prevent, and minimize pain in all senior dogs and cats. The AAHA guidelines encourage veterinarians to use pain assessment as the fourth vital sign (along with temperature, pulse and respiration). The different types of pain include acute pain, which comes on suddenly as a result of an injury, surgery, or an infection, and chronic pain, which is long lasting and usually develops slowly (such as arthritis). You can play a key role in monitoring your pet to determine whether he suffers from pain. For more information, see our article on Pain Management for Pets. To help ensure your pet lives comfortably during the senior life stage, it’s critical to work with your veterinarian to tailor a senior wellness plan that is best for your dog or cat. Be sure to monitor behavior and physical conditions and report anything unusual to your veterinarian, who can help your pet head into the twilight years with ease.
When you’re standing in an exam room, holding your dog or cat and waiting for a diagnosis, the last thing you want to hear your veterinarian say is "cancer." It brings to mind a rush of complex, confusing emotions. Maybe you are reminded of your own experiences, or a friend or a relative who dealt with cancer. You feel powerless to help your pet, almost like you’re under attack. You have a whole list of new decisions to make about treatment, finances, and caretaking. A minute ago, you were thinking of your pet as healthy and happy; now you are afraid that he will suffer, or lose mobility, or even that you could lose him. In an instant, one word has changed your whole world.
All of these feelings, confusing and conflicting as they might be, are completely normal. Cancer can be a complex, frightening disease that brings on a lot of very emotional reactions. But once your initial fear starts to fade, you’ll learn that there are a lot of reasons to take heart. Though all cancers are different, cancer is, in general, a very treatable disease. In fact, it is the most curable of all the chronic diseases pets can get. When cancer is caught early enough, there are a lot of options. Veterinarians have all kinds of advanced treatments to treat your furry family member, with new therapies being developed all the time, and animals often respond very well to treatment. There is plenty of reason to hope that you and your pet will have a lot of happy years together. As scary as it seems at first, you can make it through your pet’s bought with cancer. If you get informed, work together with your pet’s healthcare team, and take good care of yourself and your pet, dealing with cancer doesn’t have to be a frightening process.
One reason cancer can be so scary for us is that it seems so mysterious. Nothing is as frightening as the unknown. You can work through your fear by informing yourself about the disease, the dangers it poses and the hope it offers. Knowing something about cancer will not only help you to make better decisions about your pet’s treatment, but will also help you to feel more in control of your situation.
You first need to understand the disease as a whole. The term cancer is a general one. It refers to any disease in which cells divide out of control. For some reason, the genetic code that tells cells when to stop dividing breaks down, and the cells reproduce at high speed until they form a big mass of cancer cells, called a tumor. This tumor can interfere with and damage other, healthy cells. If they keep growing, the cancer cells can start to spread--or metastasize--to other parts of the body, like the bones or lungs, and the cancer cells can damage them as well.
In Pets Living with Cancer: A Pet Owner’s Resource (AAHA Press, 2000), Dr. Robin Downing explains that, under the general category of cancer, there are about a hundred specific types, each one involving different body parts and having its own name. A cancer can attack the skin, for example, as in Squamous cell carcinoma, or the bones, as in osteosarcoma. Each type of cancer is its own disease, causing unique problems and responding to different treatments. You can take a powerful first step by learning what kind of cancer your cat or dog has, how it spreads, what its survival rates are, and how it’s treated. There are three good ways to do this:
Go to your veterinarian.
Your veterinarian is your most accessible and dependable resource of facts and advice. Don’t be afraid to ask your veterinarian to explain anything that you don’t understand. He or she is there to help you, and wants you to understand the situation as clearly as possible. Keep a notebook to jot down questions that occur when you’re away from the office. Ask your veterinarian for handouts and pamphlets, and underline anything you don’t understand to ask about later.
Go to the library.
It’s an old-fashioned solution, but a good one. Find books on cancer in general, and on cancer in animals. Ask a librarian to help you look up newspaper or magazine articles in a database. Look in the reference section for information about organizations that deal with disease with animals.
This can be a fabulous resource for finding support groups and getting first-hand information from people who’ve cared for pets with cancer. Be cautious, though, about accepting medical advice you find on the Internet, where you can never be sure of your source’s qualifications. Always check your facts with your veterinarian before making decisions about your pet’s treatment. Armed with information, you have the power to move on to planning your pet’s care and treatment.
There is no single right answer to this question. Every dog and cat and other animal is unique, and every kind of cancer is different. The entire network of people caring for your pet will work together to decide what kind of treatment will help your pet live the longest, most comfortable life he can. The kind of treatment chosen will depend on your animal’s age, general health, type of cancer, and other factors. There are, however, three kinds of treatment that are used most commonly.
Veterinarians will perform surgery on a tumor when it can be removed from a pet’s body without damaging other tissue. It is not a viable option if the cancer is large enough to endanger the animal if removed, if the cancer has spread, or if the animal is too weak to survive anesthesia.
This is a process in which an animal is given toxic chemicals, usually intravenously, that are intended to kill the out-of-control, rapidly reproducing cancer cells, without damaging the slower-dividing healthy cells. The good news is, animals often respond to chemotherapy better than humans. They usually don’t have the severe side effects like nausea and hair loss that people can experience.
In this treatment, high doses of radiation are aimed directly at the tumor to shrink it or arrest its growth. This can be done either with a narrow beam of radiation, or with radioactive implants placed next to the tumor. It’s a completely painless procedure.
In addition to these, there are several other, less common, ways to treat cancer. Some of them are new medical treatments, like gene therapy (fixing the flawed DNA in the cancer cells) and cryosurgery (the freezing of tumors using liquid nitrogen). Complementary therapies such as massage, herbal supplements, and acupuncture are also available. Often two or more of these techniques will be used in combination to treat an animal.
After surgically removing a cat’s tumor, for example, a veterinarian might chose to perform radiation treatments to keep any leftover cells from reproducing. You’ll have to discuss with your veterinarian which therapy, or combination of therapies, is right for your animal friend. When you’re educated and informed about your pet’s cancer and its treatment, you can contribute more to this discussion and get more out of it. You’ll be an active, knowledgeable member of the decision-making team.
One of the most important things to know is that you and your pet aren’t fighting the cancer alone. A lot of people will contribute to the process of treating your pet, from your veterinarian and your veterinary technicians to your own friends and family. You may also work with specialists, like pathologists--who test and diagnose cancer cells--veterinary surgeons, veterinary internists, and veterinary cancer specialists. Get to know the people who take care of your pet. Ask them questions and let them know how you’re feeling and how you think your pet’s doing. It’s important that all the different team members communicate with and trust one another, so they can be an effective, unified group working together to keep your pet healthy and comfortable.
Above all, remember that you are the heart of this group. Dr. Downing writes, "Think of yourself as the captain of your pet’s cancer-fighting team." You are vital to your pet: you’re his caretaker and comforter, his protector, bather, feeder, and guardian. He depends on you and needs you to be healthy. The day-to-day work and worry of caring for a sick pet can be overwhelming, though, particularly on top of all your other responsibilities. If you ever start to feel like you’re too stressed out or too sad to take care of your friend, let the rest of the team know. Tell your veterinarian, family, or veterinary technician. Your veterinarian can help direct you to resources to help you deal with grief and loss. Maybe a friend can take care of your dog for a night while you go out; maybe your veterinary technician can teach you how to take care of your cat without putting so much stress on yourself. There are resources out there for you, as long as you ask for help when you need it.
No matter what, the best way you can help your pet is by being with him. Enjoy the time you have with your pet. If your dog or cat can’t run around and play like he used to, you can sit with him while you read, pay the bills, or watch television. Touching your pet is important, too: set aside time to slowly brush and pet him, or give him a gentle massage. Feeling safe, comfortable, and loved is the best thing to keep your pet feeling good emotionally and physically. No treatment in the world will help him as much as being with the human family that loves him. Best of all, spending quality time with your furry friend is good for you, too, lowering your stress level and making it easier for you to cope with his illness. Treasure the time you have with your pet; think of it as a gift. No matter what happens in the future, the lazy afternoons you spend lying with your kitty in the sunshine or rolling a tennis ball to your dog across the living room floor are memories you will have forever.
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